A Blistering Timetable - Forex Reviews, Forex News & Daily

What Forex Trading Tools should I have ?

A trading Terminal from a reputable broker.
A Forex Economic News calendar.
A Risk Manager.
A measure of currency strengths.
A tested strategy.
Trade Station.
A Trade Timetable.
A Market Timetable.
Software tools.
submitted by sarfaraj_patel786 to Daytrading [link] [comments]

What Forex Trading Tools should I have ?

A trading Terminal from a reputable broker.
A Forex Economic News calendar .
A Risk Manager.
A measure of currency strengths.
A tested strategy.
Trade Station.
A Trade Timetable.
A Market Timetable.
Software tools.
submitted by sarfaraj_patel786 to u/sarfaraj_patel786 [link] [comments]

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

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BitOffer:How to Quickly Achieve Asset Appreciation in 2020?

BitOffer:How to Quickly Achieve Asset Appreciation in 2020?

https://preview.redd.it/u74wblb7u5741.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=f743d263a1e13c8a928095223073470f9923deda
For a long period to come, it cannot be denied that the global economic downturn is inevitable, and the ROI of not a few financial products keeps falling. As the economic downturn is ongoing while a continual rise of the commodity price, how can we ensure our asset preservation and appreciation? Most people always complained:” We missed out on the perfect timing to invest, if we bought bitcoin several years ago, we would be the winners!”
It is definitely that we live in the world with opportunities such as stocks, forex, P2P, etc. Those miracle words came out and became the magic to make lucky ones rich. However, most people did not catch fortunes as they wished. Bitcoin, a burgeoning digital asset, seems to be our new “Noah’s Ark”.
Since bitcoin was born, the price of bitcoin has risen by several ten thousands times for 10 years. Perhaps it just started its legend. Maybe the next 10 years is the period that bitcoin starts performing. If you already missed out on the stock market 10 years ago, then bitcoin might be your next train for the next 10 years. Fortunately, the 3rd halving of bitcoins is on the timetable of 2020. For normal investors, to buy and hold bitcoins from now on is the most perfect timing to invest.
Even then, the price of bitcoin today is still expensive, which is priced at about $7,500. For most investors, their affordance for buying bitcoins is low because they are short of budget. So, how can they solve this problem?

https://preview.redd.it/hsttbhkau5741.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f294ae79c2dfa9f365ad2a35cb05748fa237cbf
BTC Options, which only requires a few premium then the investors own the rights equal to holding bitcoins.
What is BTC Options?
In short, BTC Options is the rights in the future; When I buy BTC Options, I own the rights of bitcoin within a specific period. A BTC Options contract equals the rights of a bitcoin. In a way, options and spot trading both need to predict the bitcoin price direction in the future. But options trading allows users to buy call (Expect the market to be bullish) or put (Expect the market to be bearish).
What are the differences between BTC Options and the bitcoin on the spot trading market?
For example, BTC Options launched by BitOffer, which requires 0 fees, 0 margins, and no exercise.
Like what I mentioned before, A BTC Options contract quals the rights of a bitcoin, when the minimum price of a BTC Options contract is $5, if you buy 10 BTC Options contracts with $50, you would directly own the rights of 10 bitcoins.
When the bitcoin price rises from $7,500 to $8,000, $500 profits would be made by holding a bitcoin as well as buying a BTC Options contract. The profits are the same, but the budget difference is 1,500 times. And $5,000 profits would be made if buying 10 BTC Options contracts. Thus, we can see that BTC Options is a better choice than other investments.
How Do You Trade BTC Options?
For example, now the bitcoin price is $7,500, you predict that the bitcoin price will rise in an hour. Then you buy a 1-hour call options contract with $5. As you expect, the bitcoin price rises by $500 in an hour. When the contract settled, you will get $500 as the return, which is 100 times to your premium.
That is how options trading works, without paying the full amount, then you will be able to earn the price spread with a few premium.

https://preview.redd.it/hexuskxcu5741.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=fe129ab11e2fc442fc81b5397988de1c59e6bd99
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BitOffer:How to Quickly Achieve Asset Appreciation in 2020?

BitOffer:How to Quickly Achieve Asset Appreciation in 2020?

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For a long period to come, it cannot be denied that the global economic downturn is inevitable, and the ROI of not a few financial products keeps falling. As the economic downturn is ongoing while a continual rise of the commodity price, how can we ensure our asset preservation and appreciation? Most people always complained:” We missed out on the perfect timing to invest, if we bought bitcoin several years ago, we would be the winners!”
It is definitely that we live in the world with opportunities such as stocks, forex, P2P, etc. Those miracle words came out and became the magic to make lucky ones rich. However, most people did not catch fortunes as they wished. Bitcoin, a burgeoning digital asset, seems to be our new “Noah’s Ark”.
Since bitcoin was born, the price of bitcoin has risen by several ten thousands times for 10 years. Perhaps it just started its legend. Maybe the next 10 years is the period that bitcoin starts performing. If you already missed out on the stock market 10 years ago, then bitcoin might be your next train for the next 10 years. Fortunately, the 3rd halving of bitcoins is on the timetable of 2020. For normal investors, to buy and hold bitcoins from now on is the most perfect timing to invest.
Even then, the price of bitcoin today is still expensive, which is priced at about $7,500. For most investors, their affordance for buying bitcoins is low because they are short of budget. So, how can they solve this problem?

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BTC Options, which only requires a few premium then the investors own the rights equal to holding bitcoins.
What is BTC Options?
In short, BTC Options is the rights in the future; When I buy BTC Options, I own the rights of bitcoin within a specific period. A BTC Options contract equals the rights of a bitcoin. In a way, options and spot trading both need to predict the bitcoin price direction in the future. But options trading allows users to buy call (Expect the market to be bullish) or put (Expect the market to be bearish).
What are the differences between BTC Options and the bitcoin on the spot trading market?
For example, BTC Options launched by BitOffer, which requires 0 fees, 0 margins, and no exercise.
Like what I mentioned before, A BTC Options contract quals the rights of a bitcoin, when the minimum price of a BTC Options contract is $5, if you buy 10 BTC Options contracts with $50, you would directly own the rights of 10 bitcoins.
When the bitcoin price rises from $7,500 to $8,000, $500 profits would be made by holding a bitcoin as well as buying a BTC Options contract. The profits are the same, but the budget difference is 1,500 times. And $5,000 profits would be made if buying 10 BTC Options contracts. Thus, we can see that BTC Options is a better choice than other investments.
How Do You Trade BTC Options?
For example, now the bitcoin price is $7,500, you predict that the bitcoin price will rise in an hour. Then you buy a 1-hour call options contract with $5. As you expect, the bitcoin price rises by $500 in an hour. When the contract settled, you will get $500 as the return, which is 100 times to your premium.
That is how options trading works, without paying the full amount, then you will be able to earn the price spread with a few premium.


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Our most recent AMA with CEO William Heyn discussing key topics, including his experiences and vision, FX Trading and more!

Our most recent AMA with CEO William Heyn discussing key topics, including his experiences and vision, FX Trading and more!

AMA with CEO William Heyn
“Good Morning fellow, TIOnauts, Bill here, getting ready to answer your questions in the upcoming AMA
I wanted to get an early start by addressing one big question we have been getting. It is always a bit unsettling when a big name leaves a company's board, we understand. However, please remember, there is a lot more to being on a corporate board than just advising a company on its business path. There are meetings, board votes, board minutes and so on, all of the things that the public doesn't see that directors do - and spend a lot of time on.
But let's be honest about what you all want from a big player like Chien, you want him to be involved in advising the company and helping us move forward and grow, right? Do you care if he is going to cast a vote to second the board motion to approve the minutes from the last board meeting?
So as we have said, Chien is going to stay involved as an advisor, he is just letting go on some of the more mundane aspects of being a board member. As most of you know, Chien is a rock star and we are lucky to have had him on the board for the last year, now he is going to spend some of his time on other things - most importantly Forbes Crypto, which directly benefits trade.io - but he is still going to be involved in the strategic direction of the company.”
Q. how much trade.io own from Forbes?A. Hi Pacimaker, got it, thanks for the question, so all I can say is that it is a meaningful amount - beyond that I am not at liberty to say
Q. Bill what are your thoughts on both trade.io for 2019 & the crypto market in general?A. Thanks for the question CB, so I mentioned in my first letter that I am a market optimist, I feel that crypto in general will find its natural bottom and come back. As for trade.io, we are looking forward to a great year with lots of things to develop and improve
Q. What are the changes in the company strategy with the recent changes in trade.io management and the crypto market as well?A. I don't think that we have changed a lot in the company strategy, we just have some new faces to help move the company forward as we see best
Q. Why do much dump? Just because of Chien Lee?A. You got me Ironfist - I don't know why anyone would be dumping - it sure wasn't me
Q As trade.io is into many initiatives it is good to know how much already spent and how much they have reserves.
A. Agreed and understood, please keep faith, we are committed to transparency and openness, we are in good shape for now, but some things we need to keep a little quiet on - so no exact number just yet
Q. Hope it won't seem too negative but I'm wondering if in the future the company will try more to consider the optics of moving around the big names. Maybe the news that Mr Presissler was stepping down could have been done at the same time as this latest announcement to get it all over with instead of pulling off the band-aid much slower.
A. Thanks for the question, so you are completely right, optics are important, and I think you will believe me when I say if there was a way for it to be less painful we would have found it but in these cases we need to be transparent - so for example, waiting a significant amount of time after I took over just to make it one announcement with Chien wouldn't have been responsible.
Krisoffer added “Thanks guys, I appreciate the answer. But as you know, a lot of people might just see the headlines and make decisions based on that, that was my concern. But thank you!”
Bill “Agreed Kristoffer, but we need to balance being as transparent as possible with what is easy, right?”
Jim P added: “Agreed, but we are still working closely with Bill. We are in constant communication.”
Q. Who do you think is the most difficult thing to be done now?A. So, I'm not sure my fingers would take the typing of the full list here, lots to be done, but in general, I look at it like this, trade.io is growing up, companies go through stages and we are entering a new one, we have grown so fast and done so many great things we need to take stock now and see what is working and what is not going exactly as planned and then adjust - very typical for a company of this stage
Q. Is the Forex platform planned before the end of this year?
A. That is planned for Q1 2019
Q. Bill, what was your previous experience in the management of startups like trade.io? You look like to me like a SP500 guy.....that’s the reason of my question.
A. I'm not ashamed to admit were talking about my favorite subject now (me) - So Carlos, boiling it down to the most relevant, I left Merrill Lynch in 2001 after working there and at JP Morgan and Morgan Stanley and founded my own investment bank, just me and a computer. I have built that up over the last 17 years into a full service registered investment bank - so I have done lots of other startups in the past but I think that is most relevant
Q. So u are better than Jim?
A. Pacimaker - Jim and I have been friends for nearly 30 years... you trying to break that up?
Kidding aside, Pacimaker, Jim and I have worked together for almost 20 years now
Q. How are things going to be any different with you as CEO as opposed to Jim?
A. We have different skill sets and have always used them in conjunction with each other on projects, just like now. Between the two of us, Jim is an idea and inception guy, he is brilliant with coming up with new ideas, launching them and getting them through their first stages. I am more of the second stage development guy. Once the company is up and running that's where I can add value. I'll admit, not nearly as exciting as what Jim does but we feel what trade.io needs at this stage.
Q. Do you think at some time trade.io will focus also on Advertise itself on communities whose tokens are listed here? Ex: OMG, BAT etc.... I personally asked this in their TG group and they seemed neither aware that we are listing their tokens.
A. So many of these tokens are already listed on other exchanges, we are working to differentiate ourselves by offering more product, the LP, FX trading etc., we need to get these up and running first
Q. Okay the exchange is getting pretty damn good, now I feel like it’s time to be innovative like setting up a "crypto/forex university" where folks are drawn to and can learn and communicate and plan the future together, is there a timetable for the "learn platform"? And what are your main marketing strategies?
A. Something like this?

Preview

Preview
Q. Is this accessible somewhere already?
A. No we are still developing it. It's in the pipeline and I didn't want to share until it was further along (within a few weeks of deployment) but I figured since you asked now is as just a good of time as any.
Q. Where u can see trade.io in next 3 months?
A. So three months, you have seen all of the timelines and things we are planning to roll out so I won’t repeat them - but more importantly within three months we will have taken stock of the company - like I have said, what is going well, what, if anything isn't and we will hopefully have fixed or being on the way to fixing everything that we can.
Q. Why did you take this challenge?
A. Got it, thanks Carlos, I love challenges, so that's easy, this is what I like to do, help build new companies, so this challenge is right up my alley. Why this one as opposed to others? I genuinely believe that DLT is going to upend the finance world that I have been a part of for decades, I want to be a part of that
Q. Good morning Bill. I think one pressing question on everyone's mind, is the state of finances of the company. We see not much trading going on, so obviously no revenue there, and we don’t have any idea of the other areas making profit... The bear market can be long and drawn out, and those companies that can weather the storm, will prosper obviously. Question is straightforward.... do you feel comfortable that trade.io is in a position to continue operating for 6 more months under current conditions?
A. Hi Dustin, good morning, and thanks for the question. Easy answer is yes, I'm comfortable that we are good to go for 6 months and beyond, the bear market is rough on all of us but our reserves are just fine. But this is always something we focus on, every day making sure that we are keeping operations running
Q. One other thing I know everyone wants an explanation of: is how the liquidity providers work on the exchange. We see lots of small trades by bots that appear as wash trading, which is one thing trade.io has always been against.. Can you give a brief explanation of how that works?
A. Sure, very briefly, as you know the market markers are there to create liquidity and orderly markets - just like the old time guys on the floor of the NYSE, right? So while it may look like a wash, it should only be liquidity and matching - keeping the market moving. That's the market theory, if you want more of the technical aspects of how they work I might have to leave that for our tech guys
Q. Great... I know it is a major question for everyone, and to understand how that works would be a great help
A. From Jim P market makers are there to create an orderly market, and provide a minimal level of liquidity. That’s what ours are doing. We are not manipulating the tape, fake buy walls or sell walls, spoofing, or inflating with millions of fake volume like many others.
Q. Bill Do you think the future is the STO’s?
A. So the STO question is a good one, and really boils down to all of the regulatory issues out there, as the markets have changed and regulations have been maturing I do think that STO's will be part of the path forward - basically between the ICO and the traditional IPO, but there is a lot of evaluation left to do and regulations are changing
Thank you all, I do have to run, it has been a pleasure talking with you all this morning (for me), I look forward to working with you all going forward
Q. Do we have any bombastic announcements to the short and mid terms???
A) We always may have some surprises, but for now we’re focused on executing the initiatives outlined in https://howsitcoming.trade.io in a timely manner.
Q: According to Jim Preissler, trade.io had plans to dual-list traditional stocks on our exchange at some point in the future. There isnt much talk about it anymore. Is that something that we could expect next year?
A) Yes, the goal has always been having a multi-asset platform; we are still hopeful that we will have this running in 2019, but do not have a specific timeline yet.
Q: What coins will be available for depositing on FX platform of trade.io in first time?
A) Ethereum, Bitcoin, TIOx with reduced commissions for TIOx users.
Q: When will fiat be available for depositing on FX platform?
A) Targeting early Q1 2019
Q: Why hasn't the company endorsed and advertised trade.io into communities of the Tokens that we are listing (BAT, OMG etc...)? Thx
A) There is no specific reason, and I agree we need to do a better job of doing this going forward, as it gains more exposure to to trade.io and TIOx.
Q: Hi Mr. William Heyn. May I know when does the "Stop Limit" function to be added into our platform? As a trader, I believe that becoming more important as trading in the downtrend market now.
A) Targeting Q1 2019
Q: Will the launch of forex be a beta or Full version?
A) We’re expecting full version, with standalone FX sites to be up in early Q1 2019.
Q. Will trade.io become dex in the future?
A) Possibly, but its not on our timeline at this point.
Q. What do you think of the idea to take another fast token as the base like XRP or maybe even something like nano? That would still be pretty unique…
A) Something we are considering.
Q. When we can use TIOx to get discount when we trade( same like BNB)?
A) TIOx is used for the LIquidity Pool, and can be used on the FX platform, once released, for discounted commissions.
Q. Any news about that stores where TIOx should be implement this year?
A) We will be starting with our NEST shared workspaces where TIOx can be used for payment and significant discounts.
Q. What is the reason trade.io list so hard ERC- 20?
A) We’re starting to ramp up roll outs of tokens, as you witnessed last week, we added 4 new ERC-20’s including a stable coin. New chains are on the horizon, as well, as can be seen in our timeline.
Q. My question is related to trading competitions. Lastly we added MITH token but at the same time Binance added the same with trading competition. Then how new traders will be attracted towards trade.io? Not a single trading competition since exchange launch!
A) I’ve already spoken to the team about the trading competition and agree its needed, and have given them directives to launch a trading competition in Q1 of 2019.
Q. December-Q1 sounds like an amazing month with lots of good stuff, but do you have a rough time-frame for when the exchange will be able to accept fiat? That's a feature I'm really looking forward to.
A) Q1 as well, as you noted there is a lot that I have the team working on, with tight timelines, as I want to see progress in a fairly short amount of time.
Q. But what is not fair is they are using the API is open to these and not to the other traders? These are trade.io or third party partners?
A) API will be open for everyone, very, very shortly.
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Established Strategies You Can Use In Forex Trading

Both down market and up market patterns are visible, but one is more dominant. You should aim to select the trades based on the trends.

Adjust your position each time you open up a new trade, based on the charts you're studying. Traders often open in the same position and spend more than they should or not a sufficient amount. Vary your position depending on the trades above you if you want to be profitable in the market.

Some currency pairs have what is called an inverse relationship with another currency pair. What this means is that when one pair is trending upwards, the other trends downward (and vice-versa). The classic example is that of the EUUSD vs. the USD/CHF. This comes about because the Swiss economy is closely tied with the rest of the European economy. Additionally, there is the common factor of the US dollar in both pairs.

If you are just starting out in Forex and you are still hesitant about investing your own money, sign up for a demo account with a broker that will enable you to try out your Forex investment skills. Demo accounts allow you to trade with virtual money. It is a great way for you to practice without risking any real money.

You should try Forex trading without the pressure of real money. By practicing live trading under real market conditions, you can get a feel for the Forex market without using actual currency. You can also get some excellent trading advice through online tutorials. Gather as much information as you can, and practice a lot of trading with your demo account, before you move on to trading with money.

It may seem like it is you against the world sometimes when it comes to dealing with Forex trading. With the vast amount of information available online, it can be nearly overwhelming at first. This article will provide much helpful information for you to get started on the right path.

Begin as a Forex trader by setting attainable goals and sticking with those goals. Establishing goals, and deadlines for meeting those goals, is extremely important when you're trading in Forex. Keep in mind that the timetable you create should have room for error. If this is your first-time trading, you will probably make mistakes. Additionally, calculate a realistic amount of time that you can spend trading, and make sure to factor in time spent researching.

You should pay attention to the larger time frames above the one-hour chart. Technology can even allow you to track Forex down to 15-minute intervals. The thing is that fluctuations occur all the time and it's sometimes random luck what happens. You do not need stress in your life, stay with long cycles.

Be sure that you always open up in a different position based on the market. There are Forex traders who always open using the same position. They often end up committing more cash than they intended and don't have enough money. Learn to adjust your trading accordingly for any chance of success.

Learning about the currency pair you choose is important. It can take a long time to learn different pairs, so don't hold up your trading education by waiting until you learn every single pair. It's better to pick a pair in which you are interested, do your research, and understand how volatile the pair is. Follow and news reports and take a look at forecasting for your currency pair.

As a beginner in Forex, you will need to determine what time frames you will prefer trading in. To make plans for getting in and out of trades quickly, rely on the 15-minute and hourly charts to plan your entry and exit points. A scalper, for example, might refer to the five- and ten-minute charts to complete trades within a matter of minutes.

Utilize resources at hand, such as exchange market signals, to facilitate purchases or sell-outs. Forex Robots Software allows you to set alerts that sound once the market reaches a certain rate. Figure out your exit and entry points ahead of time to avoid losing time to decision-making.

Many traders make careless decisions when they start making money based upon greed and excitement. Consequently, not having enough confidence can also cause you to lose money. Work hard to maintain control of your emotions and only act once you have all of the facts - never act based on your feelings.

If you are new to the trading market, you should begin your account with a small initial deposit. This minimizes your losses if you were to lose your money. Instead of depositing more money, you should try to make gains through the money that you initially invested, and then place the money into further investments.

Be sure that your account has a Stop-loss in place. Stop-losses are like free insurance for your trading. If you do not set up any type of Stop-loss order, and there happens to be a large move that was not expected, you can wind up losing quite a bit of money. Your capital can be preserved with Stop-loss orders.
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What You Have To Know About Investing In Currency Trading

Start out your Forex trading with a mini account. You can limit the amount of your losses, but still gain experience through practice. Although a mini account may not seem as exciting as an account which allows for larger lot trades, it enables you to experiment with various techniques. Practicing this way, and with minimal risk, will help you to analyze what does and does not work for you as you develop your personal trading style.

One tip to working in the trading market is to take notes on everything you do. Write down exactly what you have done with your trades, and if you made or lost money. You can then look over your notes from time to time and see exactly what you did right, and learn from what you did wrong.

A safe Forex investment is the Canadian dollar. It is often difficult to follow the news of another country. This can make Forex hard sometimes. The U.S. and Canadian dollars usually follow similar trends, making them both good investment choices. S. dollar, which is a sound investment.

To reduce risks, you should carefully time your entry on a market, as well as your exit. You should make sure you can afford to invest the money. Do some research to find out what the market is like, and make an informed decision about when to invest and how much you can risk.

So, you have decided to dabble in Forex. You will learn that there are many different techniques and trades that you will need to know. Forex is extremely competitive which can lead you to view finding accurate and successful strategies online regarding how to trade as an impossible task. The advice in this article will help you to figure it all out.

Learning Forex trading takes work, but beware of "help" that comes from the wrong places. Some new traders go on trading forums and ask for more experienced traders to tell them when they should trade. This does not teach you anything about trading, since someone else is making all the decisions for you, and of course there is no guarantee they know their stuff. Read information on trading strategies and work on designing your own trading methods and strategies.

If you are new to Forex, begin by focusing on a single currency pair then expand as your skills improve. When you first enter the world of currency trading, professional traders suggest that the best way to practice and tone your trading skills is to trade only the Forex liquid and widely traded currency pairs, at first.

If you want a great investment, think about the British pound. The U.K. has a different currency from the rest of the European Union, which means that the pound is not affected by what is going on in Europe. The pound has proven to be a safe and profitable investment over the years.

Watch out for the political factors in your Forex Analysis. You can rather easily predict the financial situation of a country over the long term, but the political world is unpredictable. If you believe there is a strong risk of political unrest in a country, do not trade in this currency.

Make sure you choose a time to trade that works for you. Trading when you are overly tired or stressed is never a good idea. You will not want to take the time to make sure you are doing the best thing with your money. Choose a time when you have the energy and concentration that you need to succeed.

In the world of Forex, there are many techniques that you have at your disposal to make better trades. The world of Forex has a little something for everyone, but what works for one person may not for another. Hopefully, these tips have given you a starting point for your own strategy.

If you are on a streak and have a great percentage of profitable trades over a short period of time, do not think that things will slow down. Generally, when the market is good, you will have to take advantage of it, as you should continue to invest to capitalize on your opportunities.

A lot of people are trying their hands at foreign exchange currency, also known as Forex trading. There is a vast potential to make a lot of money, but you need to know the right information. Use the great tips in this article for information on learning to trade Forex.

Begin as a Forex trader by setting attainable goals and sticking with those goals. If you decide to start investing in Forex, set a goal for yourself as well as a timetable for achieving that goal. Leave some wiggle room when you are new at Forex trading. Also, decide on the amount of time that you are able to dedicate to trading and conducting research.

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[EVENT] Nigeria pledges commitment to the ten integration measure of WAMZ and ECOWAS Economic platform. Cuts Central Bank interest rates

Discussions within ECOWAS pertainjng economic integration, including customs, monetary and fiscal policy, and prospectively a common currency, are stalled. The movement lacks leadership, and adherance to agreed measures have consistently fallen short. The ten criteria for future economic integration to become viable are divided into four primary agreements, and six secondary. The four Primary Criteria to be achieved by each member country are:
The six Secondary Criteria to be achieved by each member country are:
Thanks to recent injections of FDI, and better fiscal policy, we are well on our way to achieving these goals by 2020. Yet more needs to be done. Nigeria is the largest member of ECOWAS by a long way, and almost as large as the other members put together in terms of population. Nigeria is larger than the other members of the WAMZ put together.
From this vantage point, it is essential to press Nigeria's muscles to the task at hand. We are now compliant on the four Primary measures, but some of the secondary measures still elude us. This issue with foreign currency reserves is beginning to shift, thanks to large Russian and Chinese capital loans for our nuclear energy program, and global investment into our Ports and Power stations in recent months.
Our outstanding problems as principally now monetary. Central Bank has only had a few short years of floated currency, after President removed the peg to the dollar in 2016, and it has not gone well yet. As the Naira appreciates to its true level, deep gulfs in monetary liquidity began to appear. With the renewed drive for FDI in 2017-18, the gaps are narrowing, but interest rates are at an eye-watering 14%. The Central Bank of Nigeria is ostensibly independant, but has bowed to President Buhari's pressure not to devalue the currency in 2015-16, instead pegging it to the dollar. Having recovered from recession, Nigeria must move to encourage capital access for Nigerians. Increasing our currency reserves will primarily act as a buffer for liquidity needs, and a protection against exchange rate volatility. This is the Central Banks timetable:
Quarter Bank's Planned Base Interest Rate Bank's planned total Currency Reserves
Q4 2018 13% $33bn
Q1 2019 12.5% $35bn
Q2 2019 12% $36bn
Q3 2019 11.5% $38bn
Q4 2019 11% $40bn
Q1 2020 10% $41bn
Q2 2020 9% $42bn
Q3 2020 8.5% $43bn
Q4 2020 8% $44bn
The delicate balance between ForEx and Base Rate has been made consistently worse by erratic policy changes, due to political influences, and grave shocks to a poorly prepared economy by oil prices. It is hoped that boosting capital reserves and lowering interest rates will mean Nigeria's economy is more robust, and more able to grow.
Changes to these planned rates subject to announcements.
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The May 2018 Timetable Change! (Train News Bonus) Forex news For everyone: How to view timetable 14-07-2020 ചൊവ്വ 14 th July Tuesday First Bell Time table VICTERS CHANNEL ONLINE CLASS JULY 14 KITE Multiple targets vs. Single targets ( weekly review )

How to use the Forex Market Time Converter. The forex market is available for trading 24 hours a day, five and one-half days per week. The Forex Market Time Converter displays "Open" or "Closed" in the Status column to indicate the current state of each global Market Center. Many first-time forex traders hit the market running. They watch various economic calendars and trade voraciously on every release of data, viewing the 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week foreign DailyFX is the leading portal for financial market news covering forex, commodities, and indices. Discover our charts, forecasts, analysis and more. Source: Tradingview, Forex.com On a daily timeframe, it appears EUR/GBP still has room to go on the downside towards .8500 to complete the flag formation. However, the RSI is oversold, and with the news today it’s no surprise the pair bounced to give time to the RSI to unwind back into neutral territory before it resumes it descent lower. Learn most recent news, work with a financial timetable and use investigation of the main specialists of the Trade Zone247. The best forex broker is Trade Zone247, we have excellent trading conditions, as well as instant execution of transactions and quick payments in the way that is convenient for you.

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The May 2018 Timetable Change! (Train News Bonus)

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